For all the chosen people, who were at best that do these things are an abomination but too much addicted to superstitious unto the Lord: and because of these practices.
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However false and futile in abominations the Lord your God doth themselves, they did, in fact, involve a drive them out from before thee. Thou deep offence against the very first prin- shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God. They times, and unto diviners; but as for were not only built upon systems of thee, the Lord thy God hath not suffered theology that were at war with the doc. As to the primitive and stituted as that of the Hebrews.
The most elementary sense of the root Lq practising of these arts was forbidden kashaph, it is a point which philology therefore under the severest penalties, has not yet clearly determined. Mias the mischief actually wrought was. A witch, there. Accordingly knowing woman, as wizard wise-ard eclipses of the sun or moon are called is also a knowing, cunning, or wise man, in that language'kusuph,' cutting; But the knowledge implied by the terms while our term eclipse comes from a is of a peculiar kind-a knowledge of Greek word signifying fainting orfail- occult and mysterious things-a skill ing.
Taking this derivation as a basis, in disclosing or foretelling matters that Michaelis supposes that the word, in lie beyond the reach of ordinary human biblical usage, which had respect to the intelligence, and supposed to be ac. This, ble laws, of raising winds and storms, he says, corresponds with the ancient of riding through the air, of transformrabbinical notions of witchcraft, which ing themselves into various shapes, of was a kind of unhallowed perversion or afflicting and tormenting those who had falsification of the powers of nature, rendered themselves obnoxious to them, causing them to operate contrary to the with acute pains and lingering diseases; true meant designs of their author.
This in short, to do whatever they pleased, etymology, like. The belief correct, cannot be verified, and we are in the reality of witchcraft, clothed in fact thrown back upon the biblical with this kind of supernatural attriuse of the Piel form of the verb, which butes, has been more or less prevalent is universally rendered to practise pres- in all ages and countries, and in periods tige, to use incantations, magic, sorc- ofabounding ignorance and superstition, ery, in a word, to resort to the arts of the most cruel laws have been framed witchcraft.
The Greek renders it by against its alleged professors, and mul. But it does not ap- and for crimes they neither premedipear that this is a fair representation of tated nor committed. Happily for huthe force of the original term. As the inanity, these sanguinary laws have female sex were supposed to be more been mostly abolished from the codes especially addicted to this kind of for- of enhlghtened modern nations, and the bidden craft, the word here occurs in prevention or cure of the evils of ma.
Our Eng- structed piety among all classes. The lish word witch is supposed to be de- faith in oracles and niracles, the lerived from the verb to wit anciently to gends of superstition, and the creations ueet, i. For our highly favored Israelites were to shrink with a holy sxemption firom these pernicious forms horror, and in order to deepen the imof superstitious belief, though they have pression of its ineffable turpitude and indeed sadly darkened one period of the atrocity, the abused beast was to be in.
Le sufficiently grateful. Iln]h N lo tehayeh, lit. On the pecu- Law? This is where commented. It implies in some commandment of the Decalogue, but it way a saving, preserving, continuing is enumerated also under the judicial in life, after a virtual extinction; and la ws, and marked with the punishment the import may be, that inasmuch as a of death, not only because it was a high practiser of witchcraft is to be con- handed moral offence, but also a crime sidered as ipso facto condemned to death against the state. Under the theocracy, Py the law without any previous form.
This is, per- rebellion or treason against the supreme haps, the most plausible solution of a authority.
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Sacrificing, being the princi, phraseology of which Michaelis inti- pal act of religious worship among the mates that it occasioned him no little heathen, is selected as the overt act of difficulty, as the usual mode of expres- idolatry, which constituted the capital sion in the Levitical penal statutes is offence; although under this name are tnilt" 17 moth yamuth, he or she dy- doubtless included the various idolatrous ing shall die, shall die the death, instead services specified in the parallel law, of shall not be suffered to live.
But his Deut. OcreroM, shall be destroyed.
This was be killed. S Deut. Job Ps, James 5. James 1. It'with a high hand. But if he have served them ig- and at length to embrace it, they were norantly, he is to bring the sin-offering to be exempted from any such harsh or appointed therefor. The duty Stranger,the Widow, and the Father- of thus behaving kindly to strangers less. The distinction made by the that our own experience of priva.
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Jewish critics between' vex' and' op- tion and distress should school us to press' is, that the former refers to up- a lively sympathy with the like sufferbraiding and opprobrious words, while ing of our fellow-creatures. The opthe latter points to injurious, oppres- pression of strangers may well be termsive, and cruel actions, more especially ed' an Egyptian sin, deserving of Egypin matters of traffic anid other busl- tian plagues.
By t stranger,' here That such foreign avows himself the husband of the widoi residents dwelt among the chosen peo. He vir pile is evident fiom numerous passages, titeally says of himself, what is emphatic and as the somewhat exclusive genius cally affirmed by the Psalmist, Ps. In thus forbidding his peo. Accord- pie to afflic. Neh usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon 5. Being deprived in the providence of charge can never be injured or assailed God of their natural guardians, and be- with impunity. Let the parallel moing themselves unversed inbusiness, and nition therefore of the wise man be of a timorous and tender spirit, their reverently regarded, Prov.
If thoue lend money to any of my his own breast, yet God is pleased by people that is poor by thiee. Rather, this law to give additional force to the according to the letter of the original, native sentiments of compassion and'If thou lend money to my people, even kindness which might be supposed to to a poor man with thee. I-e declares that their case commerce, and therefore could not in shall come under his particular cog- general be supposed to borrowmoney nizance.
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If any hardship is put upon but from sheer necessity; and of that them from which a husband and a father necessity the lender was not to take adwould have sheltered them, he will in- vantage by usurious exactions. The law terpose and act the part of a vindicator is not to be understood as a prohibition and protector. Having no one else to of interest at any rate whatever, but of complain and appeal to, if they cry unto excessive interest or usury. The clause, him he will assuredly hear and avenge'Thou shalt not be to him as an usurer,' them. If men will not pity them, he is equivalent to saying,'Thou shalt no will.
And this no doubt accounts for domineer and lord it over him rigorous the fact that no particular penalty is ly and cruelly. God himself undertakes to avenge and oppressive in their dealings with their cause by the retributions of his debtors would seem to be implied by providence; and nothing could more the etymology of the original term for impressively show the divine abhorrence usuy n eshek , which comes from of the sin.. It was no common sin, and a root signifying to bite; and in Neh. The equity of the sentence bitter and grinding effects resulting denouncel is too obvious to be over- from the exercise of the creditor's rights looked.
The oppressors of widows and over the debtor. A large portion of the orphans shall be punished in kind; their people had not only mortgaged their wives shall become widows, and their lands, vineyards, and houses, but had children fatherless. And even at the actually sold their sons and daughters present day the judgments of heaven into bondage to satisfy the claims of upon this class of men are strikingly their grasping creditors.
In this emeranalogous to what is here threatened. Amos 2. This was not because every part sleeping at night in his outer garment, of those proceedings had been contrary exhibits one of the many unchanged to the letter of the Mosaic law, but be. The orientals cause it was a flagrant breach of equity generally, of whatever rank, do not ununder the circumstances. It was tak- dress at night. They merely throw off ing a cruel and barbarous advantage their outer and looser robes, unwind of the necessities of their brethren at their turbans and vast waist-cloth, sleepwhich God was highly indignant, and ing in their caps, shirt, drawers, waistwhich his servants properly rebuked.
The common people From this law the Hebrew canonists very often do not sleep at all in what have gathered as a general rule, that we should call a bed. The details of'whoso exacteth of a poor man, and their management of course depend knoweth that he hath not aught to pay much on the particular costume of the him with, he transgresseth against this country; but, spealing generally, a poor prohibition, Thou shalt not be to him man is quite content to make his cloak as an exacting creditor.
We no where learn on one of the two and covering himselt from the institutes delivered by Moses with the other, or else making the cloak that the simple taking of interest, es- or the girdle alone serve all his pur. A mat, rug, or piece of carpet Deut.
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These observations particuno countenance to the griping and ex- larly apply to the Bedouin Arabs, altortionate practices to which miserly though true also of other Asiatic counmoney-lenders are always prone. The tries, and is not peculiar to Asia, for, deserving and industrious poor might while travelling in Russia, we have sometimes be reduced to such straits that often, on passing througgh towns and vilpecuniary accommodations might be lages at night or early in the morning, very desirable to them, and toward such seen great numbers of men lying about God would inculcate a mild, kind, and on the ground wrappedup so their sheepforbearing spirit, and the precept is en- skin cloaks.
The poor desert Arab, forced by the relation which they sus- whose dress is little more than a shirt tained to him; q. Trust me against the fear ing it over his head-for an Arat a!
Acts Jude S. But by day or night-and gathering up his it may be asked whether a formal law feet, he sleeps'with as much apparent would be framed in respect to articles ease sad comfort as on a down-bed, his given in pledge but for a single day? There is no only, and was returned to the credpeople of the East whose costume seems ilor by day. Here again the Hebrew to have remained with so little altera- canons opportunely offer their deduction from the most ancient times as tions.
We pledge at the'ime when lie needeth it. Ihis work with them. If he do not reIt is nearly square, reaching from the store the instruments of the day by shoulders to Lhe calf of the leg, or even day, and the instruments of the night to the ancles, and about as wide as long. Maimonides for the neck, and a slit on each side for in Ainsworth. Law respecting the Contempt of Garments of the kind indicated are of Authority.
Some Thou shalt not revile the gods. Visjer Elohim; i. See Note on Ex. Thus Eccl. The former thinks that worn loosely on the shoulders, as the the Deity should be to us an object of Irish peasantry wear their great coats; such sacred veneration, that we ought but when active exertion is required it not even to blaspheme what is erroneis either thrown aside, or is drawn close ously accounted divine; and that the around the body and fastened by a gir- heathen would, out of zeal and by way die, the arms being then necessarily of rataliation, blaspheme the true God, thrust through the arm-holes.
This ar- if he heard the Jew blaspheming his ticle of dress is certainly as indispensa- gods.