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All Palaeolithic localities are open air scatters and find spots, located along the foothills, within 1 km of structural hills and hillocks. Localities were identified all along the Banasandra hills, which, prior to the study were confined only to its north-eastern slope Fig. The Palaeolithic record consists of a rich lithic assemblage of cores, flakes, bifaces and retouched pieces, on both flakes and natural clasts. It is ascribed to the Acheulian tradition. The dominant raw material used is coarse-grained quartzite, with fine-grained quartzite and quartz being minor sources Srinivas a, b.

Location and Context of Sacred Spaces The sacred spaces are distributed all over the study region, without any preferential concentrations. Various cultural spaces, such as temples and shrines, are located in all areas currently occupied by the locals. Further, several important sacred spaces are defined by hills and on hill tops, usually complimented by a temple or a shrine Fig.

Eric Rohmer, corps et âme: L'intégrité retrouvée (French Edition)

These are usually devoted to the worship or reverence of snakes or spirits Fig. Ancestor worship is also attested to, denoted by the presence of hero stones and sati stones. When they occur in multiple, they number seven, being referred to as the 'Sapta maatrikas', or the seven mothers. Results To understand the impact of modern day land-use practices, especially on the Palaeolithic find spots, a preservation grade was assigned to each of the locality studied. This was undertaken in order to quantify and qualify the preservation of each site with respect to changing trends in modern land-use practices.

The grades are as follows: Grade 1: Perfect Preservation. No human modifying agents at work. Grade 2: Good Preservation. Some human modifying agents at work, but not largely damaging the integrity of the site. Grade 3: Comprehendible Preservation. Human modifying agents at work which have damaged the integrity of the site, but not beyond comprehension. Grade 4: Poor Preservation. Human modifying agents at work which have completely damaged the integrity of the sites with relation to the artefact distribution and horizontal context of the lithics, but artefacts still identifiable.

Grade 5: Complete Destruction. Human modifying agents have completely destroyed the sites leaving no trace of any kind. This objective grading system enabled an easier gauge for comparing the preservation of the two different kinds of data under study. Preservation of Palaeolithic Sites Most of the Palaeolithic sites in the region have been either completely destroyed Preservation Grade 5 or are poorly preserved Preservation Grade 4.

With the exception of two localities Gadabanahalli and Bommenahalli-Banasandra Locality 2 , the other localities have been subjected to significant levels of modification from culturally derived site formation processes. Some previously reported localities, especially those reported by Shivatarak , have been completely destroyed, and are forever lost. The main practices which have adversely affected Palaeolithic site preservation in the region are centred on two general processes urbanisation and industrialisation, which will be dealt in detail in the discussions. Preservation of Sacred Spaces Contrary to what was observed with the Palaeolithic sites, the sacred spaces were, at the worst, unaffected by anthropic action Preservation Grade 1 , or are actively preserved and conserved Fig.

Rituals are performed regularly at the sacred spaces within occupied zones, and even occasionally, in those that were remote Fig. In many cases, a special board was instituted by the local populations for the preservation and conservation of these spaces, funded by local governmental institutions, donations by the public and funds raised through collections.

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Modern Day Land-use Practices and their changing trends To truly understand the pattern of distribution of the sites in the region, it is necessary to qualify and quantify the present day activities carried out in the region. Such a study, on the practices currently working on the landscape would help in understanding the impact these modern day practices would have had on the archaeological record, especially with regard to its distribution, preservation and visibility, and for Culture Resource Management Planning Pappu 32 ARKEOS This kind of a study is essential with a research, such as this current work, which depends heavily on the availability and visibility of the archaeological record on the surface of the landscape.

Therefore, to better understand this surface scatter and distribution of Palaeolithic localities in the vicinity of the Banasandra hill ranges, a study of the modern day land-use practices, from to was undertaken Fig. This time span covers the period from the initial reporting of the site in Sampat Iyengar till the time of the field survey.

The various identifiable modern day land-use practices in the region immediately surrounding the Banasandra hills can be classified as follows: Agricultural Cultivation This includes the cultivation of food crops such as ragi Eleusine coracana , and a variety of vegetables, such as eggplant and gourds. Fields are ploughed with the help of tractors. Agricultural Plantation This is the large scale cultivation of cash crops, which in this region is mostly coconut, with some eucalyptus and palm.

Settlement This accounts for land under direct occupation for settlements, as villages. The major settlements in this area are Biligere, Bommenahalli, Gadabanahalli, Aralaguppe, Gulladahalli, Kunduru, and some minor and temporary settlements associated with these villages.

Railroad A part of the railway tracks of the South Western Zone is also included within the region. It is dominated by a variety of shrubs, and at some places, it is barren and devoid of any vegetation. It is currently used as grazing grounds by the local populations of the region.

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Table 1 outlines the areas subjected to these different land-use practices, and changes witnessed in them in , and in Fig. The area covered by railroad has remained constant, while the water canal was constructed only in Discussions and Conclusions A synthesis on the basis of field observations, interviews and remotely sensed data confirms the clear bipolar nature of the preservation and conservation of the regional archaeological record of Kibbanahalli. While sites which have a clearly defined role in the social matrices of the local populations are well preserved, and even actively conserved, the Palaeolithic sites which are not recognised as belonging to the local populations, and even unknown to them, have been subjected to site formation processes which have negatively impacted their preservation.

Modern Day Land-use Practices and their Impact on the Archaeological Record: Urbanisation and Industrialisation The rapid rate of development in the region, with regard to increasing settlement area and area under agriculture, has a negative impact on the preservation of the Palaeolithic 34 ARKEOS The construction of the canal in the region to has impacted the archaeological record by altering the landscape, hindering certain observations related to the current and previous drainage in this region.

The rapid rate of transformation of land under agricultural cultivation into land used as plantation has also affected the Palaeolithic record. During such transitions, the top few feet of the deposit is cleared away with the help of a JCB Earth Mover. Soil from nearby locales, especially those which have a lighter tone such as the soil available in the deposits of KBH1 Kanave Katte are quarried as a form of natural fertilizer.

The pieces derived from the regolith are used as boundary markers and terrace bunds, and construction material. This multi-pronged assault on the upper few feet of the colluvial deposit which houses the archaeological record has a disastrous effect on the preservation potential of these Palaeolithic deposits. Excessive quarrying, for sand and stone, results in the same disastrous effect on the Palaeolithic record of the region. In the areas surrounding the Banasandra hill ranges, mining for iron and manganese ore, as well as quarrying of granite for construction has severely affected the landscape of the region as well as resulted in the complete destruction of the archaeological record of the same.

Palaeolithic localities reported by Shivatarak could not be located, which might be a result of such industrial-scale activities. It is of utmost importance to record and document as much of the archaeological record of this region as possible before its inevitable loss in the face of the 'development'. Impact on the Visibility of the Palaeolithic Record A complimentary component with regard to the impact of modern day activities on the Palaeolithic record of the region is related to the visibility of the record.

As seen above, one set of practices lead to the complete destruction of the archaeological record, rendering it permanently invisible, or in some cases, such as in relation to the artefacts recovered from the terrace bunds and field boundaries of the various plantations, out of its archaeological contexts, which is almost as bad. Another set of practices, on the contrary, result in increasing the visibility of this record.

Agricultural practices which have resulted in either the removal of only the top soil, or ploughing, which results in sediments from under the top soil get exposed, bring out the underlying artefact horizon onto the surface level. This thus helps and aids in the discovery of the previously underlying and invisible archaeological record of the region. The dried up lakes and tanks of the region, a result of the newly built canal, also help in locating the artefact horizon in its archaeological contexts by providing exposed sections without the need to undertake an excavation.

Such exposed sections were thus pivotal to help situate the Palaeolithic of Kibbanahalli in stratigraphic context. The Role of Social Matrices and Site Preservation The destruction of the Palaeolithic record is contrasted with the almost perfect state of preservation of the sacred spaces. The main reason for this state of preservation can be assigned to the fact that they were included in the cultural dialogue of the local populations, and served an important function in fulfilling their cultural roles.

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These spaces were integral to realise various cult and ritual practices, transmitted from one generation to the next, and the spaces were considered as important as the practice and the rite themselves. Thus, these spaces were encoded in the local community knowledge and it is through this they ensured their continuity. Further, this also gives an insight on the means to ensure the preservation and continuity of the unknown aspects of their culture and heritage. By providing a means for the local populations to educate themselves about the rich Palaeolithic heritage of their region, and ensuring its ARKEOS 42 In addition, this paper claims the importance of preservation and promotion of the cultural heritage on a multicultural and pluri-ethnic country as Colombia, a place where the community is also in need of initiatives that advocate for a social and cultural integration.

Introduction oday's globalized world brings up issues about cultural identity and cultural diversity, social disruptionsversus social integration, as well as the sustainability of Tinitiatives or projects developed around these concepts. Some of the dilemmas related to this discussion could be represented by several cases of definition, legalization and promotion of cultural heritage in the whole world. The ancient cultural heritage, as an expression of the past, is a concept built up from several views of the actors related to it; people or institutions who have particular interests according to their nature, goals and contexts.

Today, the definition and management of ancient cultural heritage are mainly defined by the States. An example of this was the indigenous movement in Mexico that arise at the beginning of the XIX century, inspire by the contemporary independence groups who supported their ideas upon the rejection and condemnation of Spanish legacy, while exalting the good qualities of pre-hispanic civilizations like the Azteca Empire, all this with the principal aim to reach the independence from the Spanish Crown.

Similar process can be seen all around the world, and for that, it is important to analyzed and comprehend the actor involve on cultural heritage demands, as well as their interest and intentions, because according to those that same object could be defined conceptually and legally, in order to allow a certain management of it. Colombia: pluri-ethnic and multicultural Colombia as a nation, developed through the melting pot that followed the conquest of America, were elements of three major cultural components, African, American and Spanish, mixed with different mechanisms and very diverse outcomes: a large society, highly combined, but closer to their Spanish roots, that populated the cities, and ruled over the country; smaller communities that managed to maintain their indigenous heritage, against all the attempts to civilized them; even smaller populations who through rebellion were able to build a whole new and different culture turning to their many Africans origins; and, of course, all the intermediate groups that one can imagine.

In summary, Colombia reached what has been defined as a multicultural and pluriethnic nation.

Nevertheless, the mechanisms applied to this melting pot, and the subsequent dynamics between different groups generated several social disruptions that weakened cultural identities all around the territory, and has always made it hard to integrate the whole society within one state that must respect and promote the diversity of our people.

Since the concepts on multiculturalism and pluriethnicity have been embrace by the Colombian state, as the recognition of cultural diversity and an attempt to integrate different communities. In the same direction, cultural heritage had to be defined in order to reflect and promote the multicultural and pluriethnic ideas among citizens. This is how, through the Cultural General Law Law of , and its later modifications it was established that: The National Cultural heritage is constituted by the material good, the immaterial manifestations, the products and the representations of the culture that are an expression of the Colombian nationality such as the Castilian language, languages and dialects of the indigenous, black and creole communities, the tradition, the ancestral knowledge, the cultural landscape, custom and habits, along with the objects and structures to which is attributed, among others, special historic, artistic, scientific, esthetic or symbolic interest within the sphere of plastic arts, architecture, urbanism, archaeology, linguistic, sound, music, audiovisual, film, testimony, documental, literature, biography, museology and anthropology Law of Here, the cultural heritage became valuable for the State as an expression of the Colombian nationality.

Such definition subscribes to the seventh article of the Politic Constitution of Colombia, according to which The State recognizes and protects the ethnical and cultural diversity of the Colombian Nation moving on to consolidate and idea of an inclusive nation that takes in account all the sociocultural actors present inside the territory. According to these politics, it was also included in the constitution, the article 72, which establishes that all the cultural heritage in Colombia is inalienable it is outside the trading system, thus, it cannot be sell, buy or transfer to any title , imprescriptible it cannot be acquire through civil mechanisms of property, and its owner, the Nation can reclaim them at any time , and un-seizure it cannot be seizure, and therefore cannot be kept as guaranty for commercial matters Castellanos At the same time, it was also established that archaeological heritage: contains those traces of human activity and those organic and inorganic remains that by archaeological methods and technics, as well as other related sciences, can build and make public the past sociocultural origins and paths, and guaranties it conservation and restoration.

This legislation was the result of a long term fight were different sector of the Colombian population were advocating for the recognition of our indigenous and black roots, but not for our colonial ones. The galleon was known to be full of treasures, collected through years, not only for the Spaniard royalty, but also for conquers of the New World and their families. Around this galleon, its history, its location, and specially its treasures, many people have investigate, and some have built new stories, while some others have arrived to diverse conclusions, most of them assumptions, that leaded to a large and complicated debate about archaeological heritage, its ownership and its management, and not only at a local scale, but a global one.

Meanwhile, the SSA sued Colombia, and on , the Colombian Supreme Justice Court declare that the treasures from the galleon were to be divided in two, half for the finder, half for the National State. Among these criteria, the element of non-repetitions has been widely criticized since it opens the door to the possibility of trade: Repetition: quality of a good or group of goods that are similar given their characteristics, their serial condition and for having a fiscal trade value, such as coins, gold and silver ingots or precious stones Law of Thus, this discussion has raised three basic questions, which not only concern this particular case, but deals with dilemmas around the management of cultural heritage at a global ARKEOS 42 First of all, how the ships and its cargo should be define, is it cultural heritage or an actual treasure meant to be trade?

According to Colombian legislation, all the goods that represent an expression of the Colombian cultural identity can be considered as cultural heritage. The law also says it is archaeological heritage all the objects and structures that represent human activity, and must be recovered through archaeological methods and technics.

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Even though, the same Colombian law leaves an open window through which is possible to trade the ship s cargo, we have to review the actors claiming it and the benefits of this choice. First of all, once the objects are release to a global trade, they as well as their monetary profit become private, but if they are protected, those same objects can be used to interpreted and understand the social, cultural, economic, and symbolic and many other matters of the colonial society, which will benefit the whole Colombian community, considering that it belongs to a component of our cultural structure.

Following this argument, we can also notice that if the galleon is defined as ancient cultural heritage, it not only matter to Colombia as a national state, but to all actual states whose cultural identity can be related to this story, such as Spain, Peru or Panama, all territories that had influence over the ship, as well as all Latin America, since it can be seen as the expression of the Spanish conquest over our continent, and the traces left in our culture. Another argument, frequently use to support the cargo trade goes around the sustainability of the galleon rescue.


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Colombian state has little money to developed a proper subaquatic archaeological rescue, given the local circumstances where other areas are considerate more important to the country improvement. Up until now, most of the large archaeological rescues in the territory have been finance by private companies, because if a company wants to excavate an area in order to develop a new project buildings, roads, mines, petroleum extraction, etcetera they must pay for at least a basic archaeological investigation, protecting and promoting this heritage.

Nevertheless, the documents, elements and results of this kind of investigation always remain public and belong to the State. In the particular case of the galleon, there is no interest on developing a structural project in the area; therefore, no company is obligated to rescue it, but, the Sea Search Armada is willing to pay for the rescue as long as they are allowing to trade with its cargo.