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The city would have become a Central European bridgehead of the global diffusion Hoyle, However, the plans were not realized due to the financial crisis and political struggles of the early years of the post-socialist transition. The sites dedicated to the Expo were only cleansed, and a new bridge was built in order to explore the neighbourhood. More than 20 years later, a successful application for the Olympic Games could have also made Budapest a waterfront city.

In this plan, most of the sites were riverfront brownfields. But in early , the municipality withdrew its application because of a political struggle again. Nevertheless, it remains an interesting question whether Budapest could have realized the hybrid of a waterfront megaproject typical to the second generation and community-based sustainable development specific to the fourth generation.

As most formerly industrial zones remained intact during the fall of socialism Barta et al. The political struggles both on the local and the national scale have left their marks on the process. In addition to the lack of transparence of privatization, little emphasis was placed on public interests.

Therefore, we might only cautiously state that Budapest as a whole is becoming a riverfront city; it is rather realistic to identify a number of spectacularly developing riverfront zones within the city. The port-city interface model Hoyle, describes a rivalry for these sites after the disappearance of their original functions.

In contrast to that, the concept developed by Pinch and Munt is based on the interrelation between land and water. Although his study focuses on a delimited group of cities, his model can be broadened and used in a more general sense.

7.3.2 The Message/Partial subtype

The first step, i. The following phases are also adaptable: II. The process generally starts at the points closest to the inner-city or a historical center, and later expands to more remote zones. Source: the author's own work based on aerial photos, Google Earth images and detailed field survey. By and large, original functions are declining. Large parts of their original infrastructure have already been demolished.

Therefore, these are potential renewable bluefields.

Fragmentation Reaction - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

The first apartments are planned to be completed in Apart from this project, other concepts have only remained plans yet. DunaCity would have been a similarly large-scale office and residential neighbourhood in South Pest close to the most important side-branch of Danube but the financial crisis prevented the execution of the project. No construction works were taking place at the site, it has only been cleansed from the vast majority of original infrastructural objects.

Consequently, it is closer to reality if the latter two are considered to be stucked between the second and the third stages. Figure 2. Buda Riverside: a site where the realization of plans has recently started. None of them is a gated site literally but they surely satisfy the demands of an absolutely narrow class of society. The clearest example is Marina Bay , a nearby yacht harbor transformed from a former berthing bay of dredge-ships. On the one hand, it is a well recognizable type of bluefield regeneration but on the other hand, it caters to the demands of a small group of wealthy people.

Even though the whole district is under significant urban transformation, this waterfront neighbourhood is still in striking contrast to its immediate surroundings. It might be called a renewed waterfront as well, but in fact, it has no strong connection with the functional changes of its neighbourhood, nor with the riverbanks. Figure 3. Regenerated waterfronts — different degrees of indirect exclusion? This site had been used for watersports and hobby fishing, but during the transition from socialism to capitalism it became an illegal dumping ground.

There is no restriction on entrance depending on social status but the high prices definitely filter the people consuming in the bars, and the police station at the entrance also has a role in controlling. Therefore, Kopaszi Dam is an example of the transformation of an unregulated, publicly owned area into a privatized, controlled consumer space. Later, two important buildings for cultural purposes were built here: the National Theatre opened in , surrounded by harsh political debates , and the Palace of Arts in In addition to these, several office buildings were constructed along the riverfront.

Owing to the weak national regulatory system, the local government had little chance to efficiently influence the final results of construction works. The interests of the private investor — who acquired the majority of the site — undoubtedly dictated the formation of the entire neighbourhood. The redevelopment process has already affected the closest parts of the neighbouring predominantly industrial zone: new residential buildings have been erected and former steam mills have been converted into offices etc.

Since the waterfronts of Budapest showcase a highly fragmented pattern not just in their stages of transformation but also according to the motivations of their redevelopment , several of these categories may be recognized 7.

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As for Budapest, the entire cityscape is essentially connected to the Danube, so that both local residents and tourists claim pedestrian zones alongside the river. However, there are just a few shorter sections of the upper embankments in the inner-city where one can walk and take photos.

As these parts are not real promenades, and they are mainly used by tourists, the voice of local residents has become stronger, and several bottom-up initiatives have appeared over the last years 8. Still, these activities concentrate on the inner-city where highways on the lower embankments separate the city from the water. The needs of local residents have become only partially noticed by the planners: Kopaszi Dam , for example, satisfies this demand.

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The main aim is to enter environmental amenities in the service of the real-estate market, like in the case of the already existing Marina Riverside , the currently constructed Buda Riverside and the never realized DunaCity project. It is more or less comparable to other post-socialist cities that targeted green area developments around luxury condominiums [He, ]. A computer constantly tracks mobile subscribers of units within a cell, and when a user reaches the border of a call, the computer automatically hands-off the call and the call is assigned a new channel in a different cell.

It is a technique whereby spectrum is divided up into frequencies and then assigned to users. With FDMA, only one subscriber at any given time is assigned to a channel. The channel therefore is closed to other conversations until the initial call is finished, or until it is handed-off to a different channel. FDMA has been used for first generation analog systems.

TDMA allows each user to access the entire radio frequency channel for the short period of a call. Other users share this same frequency channel at different time slots. The base station continually switches from user to user on the channel. TDMA is the dominant technology for the second generation mobile cellular networks. Since it is suitable for encrypted transmissions, it has long been used for military purposes. CDMA increases spectrum capacity by allowing all users to occupy all channels at the same time.

Transmissions are spread over the whole radio band, and each voice or data call are assigned a unique code to differentiate from the other calls carried over the same spectrum. Each generation of mobile communications has been based on a dominant technology, which has significantly improved spectrum capacity. Until the advent of IMT, cellular networks had been developed under a number of proprietary, regional and national standards, creating a fragmented market. Today, it is the most used analog system and the second largest worldwide. It was based on the AMPS technology.

There were also a number of other proprietary systems, rarely sold outside the home country. It was first developed in the s through a pan-European initiative, involving the Eureopean Commission, telecommunications operators and equipment manufacturers. It is being used by all European countries, and has been adopeted in other continents. It was called D-AMPS when it was fist introduced in late and its main objective was to protect the substantial investment that service providers had bmade in AMPS technology.

Digital AMPS sevices have been launched in some 70 countries worldwide by March , there were almost 22 million TDMA handsets in circulation, the dominant markets being the Americas, and parts of Asia. In November , there were some It is somewhere in between a cellular and a cordless technology. It has inferior coverage area and limited usage in moving vehicles.

Subsequent, successful culture of the bacterium from pink colored cheese confirmed the diagnosis. NGS approaches can be utilized in the identification and characterization of specific pathogenic or spoilage bacteria from food or food production microbiomes.

Some examples include the identification of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum as the spoilage agent in marinated poultry Nieminen et al. Unfortunately, 16S rDNA sequencing cannot provide any further characterization of the organism other than identification. Since whole genomes are sequenced, data from metagenomic approaches can be used to characterize any specific microorganism within a microbiome.

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This is particularly helpful when the organism is non-culturable. Genes associated with motility, transport and virulence were identified in this genome. Similar metagenomics approaches were used in another study to confirm that carrot yellow leaf virus was responsible for carrot internal necrosis Adams et al. The most recent example is the determination of the draft genome of Listeria monocytogenes from an ice-cream microbiome using metagenomics Ottesen et al. Since the sequence data obtained from a metagenomics approach are detailed, these data could be used to characterize organisms other than bacteria in the microbiome.

Metagenomics approaches were used to study the virome associated with store-derived beef, pork and chicken identified a novel bovine polyomavirus in beef and a novel gyrovirus species in chicken Zhang et al. These reports highlight the utility of NGS approaches in the deep taxonomic characterization of the microbiome. Dissemination of antibiotic resistance in human pathogens is a matter of global concern. Antibiotics are used in food-producing animals and aquaculture as therapeutic agents, for prophylactics and in some jurisdictions as growth promoters Phillips, Although the growth promoting effects of antibiotics on livestock was known for years, there were no experimental data substantiating this claim.

NGS played an important role in proving the growth promoting effect of penicillin in broiler chickens Singh et al. A similar shift in gut microbiota was noted in obese- compared to lean-individuals, suggesting that penicillin treatment had an indirect growth promotion effect. Metagenomics based assays identified the origin and the distribution pattern of antibiotic resistance encoding genes in a wide variety of samples including animal feaces, manure and soil Pitta et al.

However, the overuse of antibiotics for growth promotion or prophylaxis has contributed to an increased dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes among bacteria, including major human pathogens leading to widespread antibiotic resistance Casewell et al. Collections of antibiotic resistant genes, often referred to as the resistome, were uncovered in reservoirs, such as human, animals, food and the environment Rolain, Genes in resistomes are mobilizable and can therefore be transferred to human pathogens, generating drug resistant strains. NGS-based techniques played an important role in demonstrating the transferable nature of resistome-related genes.

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Initially a study using high capacity qPCR observed a co-enrichment of antibiotic resistance genes and transposons demonstrating the mobility of antibiotic resistant genes Zhu et al. A resistome comprising genes active against 18 antimicrobial classes was observed across all samples. Metagenomics was also used to study the effect of antibiotic treatment on swine microbiota and demonstrated that there was a shift in the bacterial phylotypes driven by an increase in Escherichia coli populations 14 days post treatment Looft et al.

Along with an increase in the abundance of antibiotic resistance-encoding genes, the up-regulation of genes encoding aminoglycoside O-phosphotransferases showed that antibiotic treatment of farm animals promoted cross-resistance. NGS methods are highly efficient for microbiome related studies but there are still challenges and limitations to consider when applying these techniques to specific cases on food and food-related environments.